Intel® C++ Compiler 9.1 for Linux*
Release Notes



This product provides tools for Linux* software developers to create applications to run at top speeds on all IA-32 processors, Intel® 64 architecture processors (formerly Intel® EM64T) and the Intel Itanium® processors. Optimizations include support for Intel® Streaming SIMD Extensions 2 (SSE2) in the Intel Pentium® 4 and Intel Pentium® M processors, Intel® Streaming SIMD Extensions 3 (SSE3) in the Intel Pentium 4 and Intel® Core™ processors with SSE3 support, and software pipelining in the Intel Itanium® 2 processor. Inter-procedural optimization (IPO) and profile-guided optimization (PGO) can provide greater application performance. Intel Compilers support multi-threaded code development through autoparallelism and OpenMP* support.

Product Contents

Intel® C++ Compiler for IA-32 Based Applications

The Intel® C++ Compiler for IA-32 based applications contains the following components:

Intel® C++ Compiler for Intel EM64T-Based Applications

The Intel® C++ Compiler for Intel EM64T-based applications contains the following components:

Intel® C++ Compiler for Itanium-Based Applications

The Intel® C++ Compiler for Itanium-based applications contains the following components:

Eclipse* Integrated Development Environment (IA-32 and Intel® Itanium®-based Systems Only)

The Intel® C++ Compiler for Linux includes compiler integration with Eclipse* and the C/C++ Development Tools* (CDT). This functionality is an optional part of the compiler installation.

Eclipse is an open source software development project dedicated to providing a robust, full-featured, commercial-quality, industry platform for the development of highly integrated tools. It is an extensible, open source Integrated Development Environment (IDE).

The CDT (C/C++ Development Tools) project is dedicated to providing a fully functional C/C++ IDE for the Eclipse platform. CDT is layered on Eclipse, and provides a C/C++ development environment perspective.

The Intel C++ Compiler integration with the Eclipse/CDT IDE lets you develop, build, and run your Intel C/C++ projects in a visual, interactive environment.

See Also

What's New in Version 9.1

The following section discusses new features and changes in the Intel C++ Compiler version 9.1 and updates to 9.1. Please see the separate release notes for the Intel Debugger.

New and Changed Command Line Options

The following is a listing of command line options that are new or have changed since the initial version 9.0 release. Please refer to the compiler documentation for more information on these options.

Directs the compiler to generate processor-specific code optimized for the Intel® Core™2 processor family and the Dual-Core Intel® Xeon® 5100-series processors, as well as generic IA-32 code (IA-32 and Intel® 64 only, default: off)
Same as -dM, but outputs #define directives in preprocessed source. (Default: off)
Outputs macro definitions in effect after preprocessing. (Default: off)
Same as -dD, but #define directives contain only macro names. (Default: off)
Checks semantics of function template prototypes before instantiation (Default: off)
Same as -alias-args (Default: on)
Lets you specify the maximum size of a function to be inlined. (Default: off)
Allows or disallows casts and conditional expressions to be used as lvalues. (Default: -fnon-lvalue-assign)
Causes inline member functions to be marked as hidden. (Default: off)
Specifies the percentage multiplier that should be applied to all inlining options that define upper limits. (Default: off)
Specifies that an inline routine should be inlined whenever the compiler can do so. (Default: off)
Specifies the maximum number of times inlining may be applied to an entire compilation unit. (Default: off)
Specifies the maximum number of times the inliner may inline into a particular routine. (Default: off)
Specifies the lower limit for the size of what the inliner considers to be a large routine. (Default: off)
Specifies how much larger a routine can normally grow when inline expansion is performed. (Default: off)
Specifies the upper limit for the size of what the inliner considers to be a small routine. (Default: off)
-iquote <dir>
Adds a directory to the front of the include file search path for files included with quotes, but not brackets. (Default: off)
-isystem <dir>
Specifies a directory to add to the start of the system include path. (Default: off)
Tells the compiler to use a specific memory model to generate code and store data. (Intel® 64 only, default: -mcmodel=small)
-mtune itanium2-p9000
Optimizes for Dual-Core Intel® Itanium® 2 Processor 9000 Sequence processors. (Itanium-only, default: off)
Enables or disables performance tuning and heuristics that control memory bandwidth use among processors. (Itanium-only, default 0 for serial compilations, 1 for parallel compilations)
Directs the compiler to generate specialized and optimized processor-specific code for the Intel® Core™2 processor family and the Dual-Core Intel® Xeon® 5100-series processors. (IA-32 and Intel® 64-only, default: off)

Deprecated and Removed Command Line Options

For information on command line options that are either deprecated (still functional but to be removed in a future version) or removed (no longer supported), please refer to the chapter Deprecated and Removed Compiler Options in the Intel® Fortran Compiler Options Manual.

Alternate Command Line Options

Many command line options have an older spelling where underscores (“_”) instead of hyphens (“-“) connect the words in the option name. The older spelling is still a valid alternate option name.

Use of -fp-model to Control Reassociation

The -fp-model option controls the semantics of floating point operations. The default is -fp-model fast which allows the compiler to perform aggressive optimizations including reassociations across parentheses. To obtain the best performance while still strictly obeying the language standard's rules for arithmetic reassociation, use -fp-model precise.

Extended Gnu Compatibility

We have extended our Gnu compatibility to closely match the language semantics of different Gnu versions. For example, under -gcc-version=340 (which is automatically set if you have Gnu version 3.4 headers and libraries installed on your system), you will see that the compiler is more conformant to the ISO/ANSI C++ standard.

The specific changes are described in the Gnu documentation at (look under C++):

Variable-Length Array Improvement

Variable length arrays in C++ no longer require the element type to be of POD (Plain Old Data) type.

C++ Copy Constructor Optimization

The C++ copy constructor return value optimization will now be done in spite of cv-qualifier differences between the local variable and the return type and copy constructor calls in direct-initializations are now elided.

Eclipse* Now Supported on Intel® Itanium®-based Systems

A compiler integration with Eclipse* and the C/C++ Development Tools* (CDT) is now provided for Intel Itanium-based systems.

crtxn.o Is Now crtend.o

The file crtxn.o has been changed to crtend.o. This only affects links in -cxxlib-icc mode. The change was necessary because of changes made elsewhere in the compiler. This name is used by the built-in linker script to order initialization sections correctly and without this change, initialization of non-statically initialized globals would not work correctly.

If you are using your own explicit link line in -cxxlib-icc mode, you will need to make the corresponding change. If you are using icc or icpc to do your links, no change is needed.

libimf Linking Change on Intel® 64-based Systems

In some earlier versions of Intel C++ Compiler, applications built for Intel® 64 linked by default to the dynamic (shared object) version of libimf, even though other libraries were linked statically. In the current version, libimf is linked statically unless -i-dynamic is used. This matches the behavior on IA-32 systems. You should use -i-dynamic to specify the dynamic Intel libraries if you are linking against shared objects built by Intel compilers.

A side effect of this change is that users may see the following message from the linker:

warning: feupdateenv is not implemented and will always fail

This warning is due to a mismatch of library types and can be ignored. The warning will not appear if -i-dynamic is used.

New -early-template-check Switch

Even though recent versions of g++ (3.4 and newer) parse template definitions, they do very little semantic checking of such definitions. Most of the semantic checking is delayed until an actual instantiation is done. As a result, g++ accepts certain unusable templates provided they are not actually used in the program. A new option is available (-early-template-check) to allow Intel C++ users to check the semantics of function template prototypes before instantiation.


 class A {};
   template <class T> struct B {
     B () {}; // error with -early-template-check): no initializer for
              // reference member "B<T>::a"
     A& a;

Note that this switch will work in gcc 3.4 and later compatibility modes only (i.e. -gcc-version=340 and later).

Initializing Variables of Type __m64 in Intel® 64-based Applications

The __m64 data type used to be treated as a scalar, at least to the extent ot being able to statically initialize __m64 data with an integer literal. But for compatibility with directions being taken by other compilers supporting MMX(TM), we are dropping support for that feature. As a result, an initializer for a variable of __m64 type must be enclosed in braces. If your application uses a scalar to initialize such variables, the compiler will give an error message such as:

error: a value of type "unsigned long long" cannot be used to initialize an entity of type "const __m64"

KMP_AFFINITY Environment Variable for OpenMP* Applications

The KMP_AFFINITY environment variable can be used in an OpenMP* application to specify how execution threads should be bound to processors on the system. This setting's effect is to bind each thread, in order of creation, in a round-robin fashion to a processor core in the system for the duration of the program. The value of KMP_AFFINITY should be of the form:


where <level> is a non-negative integer. For example:


The argument <level> specifies the gap between successive thread's bound cores in the machine topology map, which is represented as a binary tree. A level of zero indicates that threads will be bound to successive threading contexts for processors which have Intel® Hyper-Threading Technology enabled, or successive processors if not. The levels increase by one level from threading contexts, to cores, to packages (processors) in sequence. This setting is supported for processors supplied by Intel Corporation only on systems where the required operating system support for thread binding is present.

Red Hat* Linux 7.3 and Red Hat Advanced Server 2.1 Support Deprecated

The Intel compilers will remove support for Red Hat Linux 7.3 and Red Hat Advanced Server 2.1 in the next major compiler release (version number higher than 9.1.) We recommend that customers plan accordingly.

Small, Medium and Large Memory Models on Intel® 64-based Systems

Applications built to take advantage of Intel® 64 can be built with one of three memory models:

Small (default)
Code and data are restricted to the first 2GB of address space, so that all accesses of code and data can be done with Instruction Pointer (IP)-relative addressing
Medium (-mcmodel=medium)
Code is restricted to the first 2GB, no restriction on data; code can be accessed with IP-relative addressing, but access of data must use absolute addressing
Large (-mcmodel=large)
No restrictions on code or data; accesses to both code and data use absolute addressing

IP-relative addressing requires only 32 bits, whereas absolute addressing requires 64-bits. This can affect code size and performance (IP-relative addressing is somewhat faster.)

Note: When the medium or large memory models are specified, you must also specify -i-dynamic to ensure that the correct dynamic versions of the Intel run-time libraries are used.

When shared objects (.so) are built, Position-Independent Code (PIC) is specified (-fpic is added by the compiler driver) so that a single .so can support all three memory models. However, code that is to be placed in a static library, or linked statically, must be built with the proper memory model specified. Note that there is a performance impact to specifying the Medium or Large memory models.

System Requirements

Processor Terminology

Intel compilers support three platforms: general combinations of processor and operating system type. This section explains the terms that Intel uses to describe the platforms in its documentation, installation procedures and support site.

IA-32 (Intel Architecture, 32-bit) refers to systems based on 32-bit processors supporting at least the Pentium® II instruction set, for example, Intel® Core™ processor or Intel® Xeon® processor), or processors from other manufacturers supporting the same instruction set, running a 32-bit operating system ("Linux x86").
Intel® 64
Intel® 64 (formerly Intel® EM64T) refers to systems based on IA-32 processors which have 64-bit architectural extensions, for example, Intel® Core™2 processor or Intel® Xeon® processor), running a 64-bit operating system ("Linux x86_64"). If the system is running a 32-bit version of the Linux operating system, then IA-32 applies instead. Systems based on the AMD* Athlon64* and Opteron* processors running a 64-bit operating system are also supported by Intel compilers for Intel® 64-based applications.
Refers to systems based on the Intel Itanium® 2 processor running a 64-bit operating system.
Note: For version 9.1, documentation and product components still use the term Intel® EM64T. In a future release, the term Intel® 64 will be used consistently.

Native and Cross-Platform Development

The term "native" refers to building an application that will run on the same platform that it was built on, for example, building on IA-32 to run on IA-32. The term "cross-platform" or "cross-compilation" refers to building an application on a platform type different from the one on which it will be run, for example, building on IA-32 to run on Intel Itanium®. Not all combinations of cross-platform development are supported and some combinations may require installation of optional tools and libraries.

The following list describes the supported combinations of compilation host (system on which you build the application) and application target (system on which the application runs).

IA-32 Host
Supported target: IA-32
Intel® 64-based Host
Supported targets: IA-32 and Intel® 64
IA-64 Host
Supported target: IA-64

Note: Development for a target different from the host may require optional library components to be installed from your Linux Distribution.

Note: Intel® Cluster OpenMP* is a separately licensed feature and has different system requirements from that of the compilers. Please refer to the Intel Cluster OpenMP documentation for further details.

Requirements to develop IA-32 applications

Requirements to Develop Applications for Intel® 64 or for AMD Opteron Processors

Note: The requirement for the 32-bit (IA-32) libraries is due to the compiler and other tools being 32-bit applications that dynamically link to these libraries. If these libraries are not installed, the following error may be displayed when the compiler is invoked:

error while loading shared libraries: cannot open shared object file: No such file or directory

The error message is confusing as it does not indicate that the IA-32 version of is required. To avoid this problem, be sure that the 32-bit (IA-32) versions of these libraries are installed. Most, but not all, Linux distributions for Intel® 64 will install these by default. Consult the documentation that came with your Linux distribution for instructions on how to install the 32-bit libraries, typically in packages named libstdc++ and libc.  If you still have problems, please contact Intel® Premier Support for further assistance.

Requirements to Develop IA-64 Applications

Note on gcc Versions

The Intel compilers are tested with a number of different Linux distributions, with different versions of gcc. If you are using any of gcc 3.2.3, 3.3.3, 3.3, 2.96, 3.2, 3.4, 4.0, 4.1, you can expect to be successful. However the version of binutils can impact your experience: later ones are generally better and we recommend using at least 2.14. Some Linux distributions may contain header files different from those we have tested, which may cause problems. The version of glibc you use must be consistent with the version of gcc in use.


Use of the Eclipse* Integrated Development Environment on Red Hat Enterprise Linux AS 2.1 has the following additional requirements:


Please see the separate Installation Guide for information on installing the compiler and setting up the compiler environment. The default installation directories, referred to elsewhere in this document as <install-dir> and <idb-install-dir>, are:

Known Issues

Binary Incompatibility for OpenMP Applications

Programs compiled with the Intel Compiler version 9.0 using the -openmp switch may not run after installing the Intel Compiler version 9.1. For such programs, the loader may exit at run time with an error message about undefined symbols beginning with the string _intel (for example, _intel_fast_memset). If this occurs, please recompile the executable using the Intel Compiler version 9.1 and the loader error message should disappear.

Header Incompatibility with RedHat* Enterprise Linux* 3, Update 4 (also SGI* ProPack* 3 Service Pack 5)

In Update 4 to RedHat Enterprise Linux 3, inline assembly code was added to the file /usr/include/c++/3.2.3/ia64_redhat-linux/bits/os_defines.h. This causes the Intel C++ Compiler to fail to compile sources referencing this header. Note that this problem is not known to exist for any other version of Linux, including earlier versions of EL3 or beta versions of the next major release of RedHat Enterprise Linux. This issue also affects SGI ProPack 3 Service Pack 5.

A modified header file which corrects this problem is available from

A good place to put the modified file is in the substitute headers directory of your installed compiler. For example, <install-dir>/substitute_headers/c++/bits/os_defines.h. The path must end with bits/os_defines.h. If you place it there the compiler will find it automatically. You should find an existing installer-created directory <install-dir>/substitute_headers and should create the sub-directory path c++/bits underneath it.

-cxxlib-gcc Is the default for C++

The STL and gcc* C++ libraries are used by default when linking C++ applications, rather than those from Dinkumware* used in previous releases. If you wish to use the Dinkumware libraries, specify the switch -cxxlib-icc. (-cxxlib-icc is not available when building for systems with Intel EM64T.) In a future release of the Intel C++ Compiler, support for using the Dinkumware libraries will be removed.

-ipo_obj option Is no longer supported

The -ipo_obj option, which forced generation of direct object code, is no longer supported. If the option is specified, a warning is given and the effect is as if -ip was specified instead.

OpenMP limitations

POSIX threaded programs that require a large stack size may not run correctly on some versions of Linux because of hard-coded stack size limits in some versions of the Linux POSIX threads libraries. These limits also apply to OpenMP programs (-openmp) and automatically generated parallel programs (-parallel ) with the Intel compilers, because the Intel compilers use the POSIX threads library to implement OpenMP based and automatically generated parallelism. Threaded programs that exceed the stack space limit usually experience segmentation violations or addressing errors.

To avoid these limitations, use a version of glibc built with the FLOATING_STACKS parameter defined. For some distributions, this implies using the shared rather than the static version of the pthreads library. Then use the ulimit -s or limit stacksize command to set the maximum shell stack size to an explicit large value, in units of KBytes, (not unlimited), and also set the KMP_STACKSIZE environment variable to the needed thread stacksize in bytes. Note, in the bash shell, ulimit -s can be used to set a large maximum stack size only once. In the C shell (csh), limit stacksize , with no dash before the argument, can be used to reset the maximum stacksize repeatedly.

This solution has been tested on glibc version 2.2.4-13 for IA-32 and glibc 2.2.4-19 for the Itanium Processor Family as found in the Red Hat 7.2 Linux distribution. For glibc 2.2.4-13 on IA-32, the shared version of the POSIX threads library must be used, (there should not be a -static flag in the compiler .cfg file or on the command line).

Compile time slow down when using both -g and inlining

There will be an increase in compile time when -g is used together with inlining. Inlining can happen if the user specifies -ipo, -ip or compiles a C++/C99 program at option levels -O1 or above. This is due to the generation of debug information. For many applications, this combination of compiler options will not increase compile time or compile-time memory use.

Compiler hang on version query on glibc 2.2.4-26

We have identified a problem with glibc version 2.2.4-26 that shipped with the original version of Red Hat AS2.1. This version causes a compiler hang on the command "icc -v or icc -V (with no files to compile). Upgrading to glibc 2.2.4-31.7 fixes the problem. If you have taken any updates to your AS2.1 you will not see this problem. There was also a respin of the original AS2.1 that fixed this problem so only if you have a very early installation of AS2.1 that has never been updated will you see this issue.

Incorrect output or miscompare on SPEC* CPU2006* 471.omnetpp on x86_64 systems

We have identified a problem with the gcc binutils linker in some Linux distributions for x86_64 (Intel® 64) systems. This problem manifests itself when running the SPEC* CPU2006* benchmark test 471.omnetpp, resulting in incorrect output, and has been reproduced using varying versions of the Intel C++ compiler as well as with gcc. Not all Linux distributions have the affected linker. The Bugzilla reports for this problem are and

Please contact your Linux distributor to find out if your distribution has the affected linker.

-relax no longer passed to linker on Intel Itanium-based systems

As of version 9.1, the compiler driver no longer passes the -relax switch to the linker on Itanium-based systems, as this conflicts with the -r option. The -relax option is not needed as it is the default when using binutils or later - 2.14 is recommended. If you must use an older binutils and wish to specify the -relax option, use -Xlinker -relax on the compile command which invokes the linker.

ld warning about on SLES 10

When applications are built using the Intel compiler on SUSE LINUX Enterprise Server 10, you may see a warning similar to the following:

ld: warning:, needed by /usr/lib/gcc/ia64-suse-linux/4.1.0/../../..//, may conflict with

A workaround is to add the following line to icc.cfg:

-L /usr/lib

This issue is expected to be resolved in a future release of the Intel compiler.

Limited debug information with automatic CPU dispatching (-ax*)

Compilation using -ax{W|N|B|P|T} results in two copies of generated code for each function. One for IA-32 generic code and one for CPU specific code. The symbol for each function then refers to an Auto CPU Dispatch routine that decides at run-time which one of the generated code sections to execute. Debugger breakpoints that are set on these functions by name cause the application to stop in the dispatch routine. This may cause unexpected behavior when debugging. This issue may be addressed in a future version of the Intel Debugger and Compilers.

Cannot debug or view traceback for IA-32 programs built without -fp

Compilation using -fp specifies that the IA-32 EBP register be used as a frame pointer rather than a general purpose register. Debuggers and traceback handlers may not be able to properly unwind through a stack that contains a call to a function that is compiled without -fp in effect. If you compile with -g or -O0, -fp is implicitly enabled, but not if you specify a higher optimization level explicitly (such as -O2). If you intend to use the debugger or traceback on an application, and are using some level of optimization higher than -O0, you should also specify -fp to ensure that the debugger and traceback handler can use frame pointers.

GNU assembler may not recognize -xP generated code

Older versions of the GNU Assembler may not be able to process assembly code generated by compiling with the -[a]xP option. Use binutils version or later, or FSFbinutils 2.15 or later if this is an issue for you.

Using older gdb versions with Intel Compilers

Intel compilers for Linux generate Dwarf2-format debugging information, including several advanced features in Dwarf2 such as declarations nested within classes. Older gdb debuggers, such as version 5.3.90-*, are sometimes unable to correctly handle these Dwarf features. For best success on source code which uses the full expressiveness of the C++ language, please consider using gdb version 6.1 or newer.

Use idb with Extended Debug Information

If you use the -debug keywords inline_debug_info, semantic_stepping, variable_locations or extended, you should use the Intel Debugger (idb), as other debuggers may not understand the extended information and may behave unpredictably. We are working with the developers of other debuggers towards their adding support for the extended debug information.

Technical Support

For information about how to find Technical Support, Product Updates, Users Forums, FAQs, tips and tricks, and other support information, please visit: For general support information please visit

Note: If your distributor provides technical support for this product, please contact them for support rather than Intel.

Resolved Issues

Please review <package ID>_README (e.g. l_cc_p_9.1.xxx_README), available for download along with each compiler update, to see which issues have been resolved in the latest version of the compiler.

Compiler Error Source Reducer (CESR)

Compiler Error Source Reducer (CESR) is a set of utilities which are useful individually or collectively in gathering, reducing, pinpointing, protecting, documenting, and bundling test cases comprised of C/C++ or Fortran source code. It can be helpful if you have a large application for which you want to extract a small test case for submission to Intel® Premier Support. CESR can be downloaded from Intel® Registration Center Product Downloads. Select your product and in the version dropdown, select CESR. CESR is unsupported and should be considered experimental, but we welcome your feedback on it through Intel® Premier Support. CESR requires prior installation of Python 2.2 or newer.


You can view the Intel compiler and related HTML-based documentation with your Web browser. You should use a Web browser that supports JavaScript (such as Firefox*), so it can which provide full navigation, search, index look-up, and hyperlink capabilities amongst the online help files PDF versions of most manuals are available online at .

The documentation is installed in the <install-dir>/doc directory. An HTML index document can be found at <install-dir>/doc/Doc_Index.htm . The Intel® Debugger Manual is provided in HTML form in the Intel® Debugger doc directory.

For information on the GNU glibc C language library, documentation can be obtained from the Linux OS vendor or from the GNU web site,

Viewing Manpages

The icc(1) manpage provides a list of command-line options and related information for the icc and icpc compiler commands. To display the icc(1) manpage, type the following command after you set up your environment by using a source command to execute the <install-dir>/bin/iccvars.*sh file:
$ man icc
The man command provides single keys or key combinations that let you scroll through the displayed content, search for a string, jump to a location, and perform other functions. For example, type the z to view the next screen or w to view the previous screen. To obtain help about the man command, type the h key; when you are done viewing help, type the q key to return to the displayed manpage. To search, type / character followed by the search string (/string) and press Enter. After viewing the man command text, type q to return to the shell command prompt.

Viewing Documentation

The HTML documentation format has been tested to work with web browsers shipped on supported Linux* distributions. PDF versions of the compiler documentation are available at:

Additional Information

Related Products and Services

Information on Intel software development products is available at

Some of the related products include:

Disclaimer and Legal Information


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The software described in this document may contain software defects which may cause the product to deviate from published specifications. Current characterized software defects are available on request.

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