ASTAR 2004 and 2007 campaigns: Aerosol and cloud properties aircraft measurements in the polar troposphere of Longyearbean (Svalbard)

Airborne measurements conducted during ASTAR 2004 campaign (CLIMSLIP+IPEV)

ASTAR campaigns are part of CLIMPSLIP+IPEV (CLimate IMpacts of Short-Lived pollutants In the Polar region Institut Polaire français Paul Emile Victor) project, carried out during the Arctic spring over the Svalbard archipelago. During those campaigns aerosol and cloud properties in the polar troposphere were measured using a research aircraft. The measurements in 2007 are also devoted to the validation of satellite sensors, in particular of the CloudSat/Calipso radar/lidar system onboard the A-Train.

Keywords: ASTAR, CLIMSLIP, aerosols, clouds, aircraft, Svalbard, polar stratosphere
Temporal Coverage: From 2004-05-10 to 2007-04-17

CALIPSO: Global satellite observations of cloud and aerosols vertical profiles

CALIPSO LIDAR Level 1 quicklook

Franco-American mission selected by the NASA to supply a unique data set of atmosphere vertical profiles measured by the satellite CALIPSO (Cloud Aerosol and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations).

Keywords: CALIPSO, satellite, global, clouds, aerosols, CALIOP, atmosphere
Temporal Coverage: From 2006-06-13

CLIMSLIP-NyA (CLimate IMpacts of Short-Lived pollutants In the Polar region-Ny Alesund campaigns)

Location map of CLIMSLIP-NyA measurements

In the project CLIMSLIP-NyA we examined how black carbon (BC) in the atmosphere and in the snow contribute to an enhanced absorption of solar radiation in the atmosphere and in the snow. The field experiments included observations of black carbon concentrations in the atmosphere in springtime and the determination of black carbon concentrations in the snow using a single particle soot photometer.

Keywords: CLIMSLIP, Svalbard, Black carbon, pollutants, atmosphere, snow
Temporal Coverage: From 2012-03-21 to 2012-04-04

CORIOLIS: Continuous oceanic sup-polar North Atlantic surface measurements of physical and chemical oceanographic data and isotopomes

CORIOLIS location map of the in situ observations from 1993-2013

This dataset contains observations of ocean variability from interannual to decadal scales measured during two missions: OVIDE mission and SURATLANT

Keywords: CORIOLIS, ships, continuous measurements, ocean surface, North Atlantic ocean
Temporal Coverage: From 1993-07-01

DARDAR: Ice cloud properties derived from CloudSat and CALIPSO measurements in a global scale

Ice cloud properties retrieved from DARDAR

There are two main products derived from DARDAR project: (1) DARDAR-CLOUD: Ice cloud properties derived from CloudSat and CALIPSO (CALIOP). There are other variables describing the mycrophysics of clouds available in ICARE. (2) DARDAR-MASK: The main variable of this product is a features categorization mask. The combination of both satellites provides accurate particle size with height.

Keywords: DARDAR, CALIPSO, satellite, CloudSat, global, ice clouds, atmosphere
Temporal Coverage: From 2006-06-01

Global climatological dataset derived from microwave radiometer satellites

AMSU-A Stratospheric temperature observations in the Arctic

The AMSU-A dataset comprises vertical stratospheric profiles of brightness temperature, while the AMSU-B dataset consists of global data of precipitation and convection detection, both of them from 1998. The MHS (since 20 May 2005) provides humidity profiles and information on surface temperature and emissivity (in conjunction with AMSU-A channels) and detects cloud and precipitation contaminated pixels. The MHS instrument represents an improvement to the AMSU-B radiometer on board previous NOAA satellites, while providing continuity to its data. METOP-C (MHS) will be the next generation of European satellites (2016) and The Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) on board NASA's newest Earth-observing satellite, NPP, acquired its first measurements on November 8, 2011.

Keywords: AMSU, MHS, global, microwave radiometers, satellites, climatology data, atmosphere
Temporal Coverage: From 1998-11-24

GOMOS: Global Atmospheric chemistry dataset from satellite measurements

GOMOS vertical profiles of local densities for all gasses

The Global Ozone Monitoring by Occultation of Stars (GOMOS) Instrument on board Envisat is an ESA instrument that was dedicated to the study of the of Earth’s atmosphere using the stellar occultation technique, allowing for the retrieval of species such as O3, NO2, NO3, H2O, O2, air density, aerosol extinction and OClO.

Keywords: GOMOS, global, chemical composition, satellite, atmosphere
Temporal Coverage: From 2002-03-01 to 2014-04-08

GOSAT: First satellite measurements of greenhouse gases concentration in a global scale

GOSAT Global distribution of xCH4 for 2010

GOSAT (Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite) was launched in a sun-synchronous orbit with an equator crossing time at 13:00 (descending node) by a JAXA H-IIA rocket in January 23, 2009 and is acquiring data on the global distribution of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) (column averaged mixing ratio) for at least five years.

Keywords: GOSAT, satellite, greenhouse gases, global, atmosphere
Temporal Coverage: From 2009-01-23

GRIP GReenland Ice Core Project

GRIP temperatures compared with NorthGRIP

GRIP is a multinational European research project, organized through the European Science Foundation. Funding came from 8 nations (Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Iceland, Italy, Switzerland, and United Kingdom), and from the EU.

Keywords: Ice cores, GRIP, Greenland summit, water stable isotopes, Holocene, Eemian, last interglacial

High-resolution record of North Greenland Ice Core Project (NGRIP)

NGRIP ice core records

NGRIP is a multinational research program, funded by participating institutions in Germany, Japan, Sweden, Switzerland, France, Belgium, Iceland and the US. Primary sponsor is the Danish Research Council.

Keywords: Ice cores, NGRIP, Greenland, water stable isotopes, Holocene, Eemian, last interglacial

IAOOS- Real time atmospheric and oceanic observations from a buoy network deployed in the Arctic

IAOOS microlidar quicklook

IAOOS-France is coordinated by UPMC (L'OCEAN/LATMOS) and its objective is to install multi-disciplinary autonomous systems on a network of buoys in central Arctic, collecting in real time observations of the ocean, sea ice, snow and atmosphere in the Arctic.

Keywords: Buoy network, Arctic Ocean, sea ice, atmosphere, micro-lidar, real time, IAOOS
Temporal Coverage: From 2012-04-15 to 2017-12-31

IASI mission: Global high spectral resolution satellite observations of atmospheric composition

IASI CO total column maps

The Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer is flying onboard MetOp-A (since 2006) and MetOp-B (2012). It is a CNES/Eumetsat instrument using a nadir view to sound the atmospheric state and composition, using the thermal infrared spectral range. More information about the IASI instrument and the MetOp satellites can be found on the dedicated sites of CNES and Eumetsat.

Keywords: Satellite, atmosphere, chemical composition, IASI, CO, ozone
Temporal Coverage: From 2007-10-01

In situ measurements of atmospheric water vapour isotopes from different research stations

This data base comprises datasets from different research stations and projects, all including water vapour isotopes measurements and precipitation

Keywords: NEEM, water isotopic composition, Greenland, atmospheric surface, Ivittuut, Greenland, Western Siberia
Temporal Coverage: From 2010-05-01

Ivittuut Observatory ICOS-ATC: In situ observations (Greenland)

Ivittuut Observatory ICOS-ATC: Continuous atmospheric observations

This dataset is part of ICOS-ATC, the research station is located in south west Greenland and provides both continuous atmospheric observations and discontinuous flask measurements

Keywords: Greenland, atmosphere, weather stations, ground observations, flasks, Ivittuut
Temporal Coverage: From 2007-09-01

Land surface temperature maps derived from remote sensing observations over the Arctic

Arctic temperature map based on SSM/I data

Hourly/daily land surface temperature over circumpolar arctic were produced from the SSM/I  and SSMIS microwave radiometers , during snow-free periods and over 1996-2012. MODIS data were used to calibrate the retrieval algorithm. The spatial resolution is 25 km and the product is available over the circumpolar northern hemisphere, for latitudes larger than 45°N.

Keywords: Land surface temperature maps, satellite, northern hemisphere
Temporal Coverage: From 1996-01-01 to 2012-12-31

MACCity project: global anthropogenic emissions inventory for year 1960 to 2020

MaCCity CO emissions maps of the Arctic region

As part of MACC and CityZen EU projects, the ACCMIP and the RCP 8.5 emissions datasets have been extended on a yearly basis for the period 1960-2020 for the anthropogenic emissions, and 1960-2008 for the biomass burning emissions.

Keywords: Global anthropogenic emissions, reanalysis, MACCity

NDACC-France SAOZ Balloon measurements: Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change

SAOZ balloons example plot

One SAOZ-BAL data set is available from Ether for the period 1993/06/24 to 2006/08/19 in V1 version for O3 and NO2; They were provided by Florence Goutail (LATMOS/CNRS). The data are level 2 vertical profiles. SAOZ-BAL data in the Arctic have been obtained during various campaigns (EASOE, SESAME, THESEO, SOLVE, BALODIN, ENVISAT).

Keywords: NDACC, SAOZ balloons, atmosphere, chemical composition, network stations
Temporal Coverage: From 1993-06-24 to 2006-08-19

NDACC-France SAOZ ground based long-term measurements of anthropogenic/natural changes in the atmospheric chemical composition in different international stations

SAOZ ground-based consolidated longterm data version 2

The NDACC (Network for Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change), formerly NDSC (Network for Detection of Stratospheric Change), is an international network for long-term monitoring of the stratosphere and the high troposphere established in 1991. Objectives include the detection of natural or anthropogenic changes in the atmospheric chemical composition and temperature, studies of interactions between atmospheric chemistry and climate, and long-term validation of similar measurements from available satellites. French activities are grouped in the Service d’Observation NDACC-France of CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)/INSU (Institut National des Sciences de l’Univers) coordinated nationally by OVSQ (Observatoire de l’université de Versailles). They are funded by several entities including CNRS/INSU, as well as CNES (Centre National des Etudes Spatiales), IPEV (Institut Paul-Emile Victor), the region of La Reunion, and several partner universities.

Keywords: NDACC, SAOZ, ground measurements, long-term, atmosphere, chemical composition, stations network
Temporal Coverage: From 1988-02-01

NEEM ice coring project

Observed NEEM ice core: reconstruction of the Eemian interglacial period

The North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling - NEEM - is an international ice core research project aimed at retrieving an ice core from North-West Greenland reaching back through the previous interglacial, the Eemian. The project logistics is managed by the Centre for Ice and Climate, Denmark, and the air support is carried out by US ski equipped Hercules managed through the US Office of Polar Programs, National Science Foundation. The ice core was drilled during 2008-2012.

Keywords: Ice cores, NEEN, Greenland, water stable isotopes, Holocene, Eemian, last interglacial

OPTIMISM: Network of automated buoys system providing real-time measurement of sea-ice thickness and fluxes at the interfaces in the Arctic ocean

Ice-T observations: Water temperature and salinity

The “OPTIMISM” system consists of an ocean buoy to measure the physical properties of the sea and ice (currents, sea water temperature and salinity, sea ice thickness and temperature) and a meteorological mast upon it. The meteorological mast is the BEAR station concept (Budget of Energy for Arctic Region). The data provided by the instrument, together with modeling works, will be used to analyse the sea ice thickness evolution in relation with the heat exchanged with surrounding fluids. The data will also document various processes such as mixing in the ocean underneath the ice or wave-ice interactions. Instruments will be deployed in an Arctic coastal polynya, a region where dense water forms and flows at the bottom of the ocean, playing an important role in climate. The instrument will also be deployed in the multiyear ice pack to contribute to the international network of observation of the Arctic and provide ground truth measurements for the validation of satellite observations. The obtained data will also be relevant for the validation of the ESA (European Space Agency)’s Earth Explorer Cryosat-2 mission.

Keywords: OPTIMISM, buoys, real-time, arctic ocean, sea-ice, fluxes, sea-surface interactions, atmosphere
Temporal Coverage: From 2010-04-25

Permafrost investigations in Central Yakutia (Siberia)

 Thermocirques in central Yakutia. From A. Sejourne, 2012.

Permafrost investigations in Central Yakutia (Siberia) carried out at GEOPS laboratory (Laboratoire de Geographie Physique, Orsay University, France) in cooperation with the Permafrost Institute (Yakutsk, Russia)

Keywords: Permafrost, Siberia, Lena river, ground-observations
Temporal Coverage: From 2008-05-01

Plant Functional Type map over Siberia derived from satellite observations

PFT (Plant Functional Type) maps used in ORCHIDEE land surface model

PFTs maps for the ORCHIDEE land surface model at 1 km scale have been produced over Siberia. They are based on the land cover product GlobCover 2005 and an updated cross-walking approach to link land cover classes to the ORCHIDEE 16 PFT classes

Keywords: Plant functional type, maps, Siberia, satellite, land

POLARCAT 2008 spring campaign: aircraft aerosol measurements over Kiruna (Sweden)

POLARCAT Kiruna Spring Campaign profile sample

POLARCAT aimed to quantify the impact of trace gases, aerosols and heavy metals transported to the Arctic and their contribution to pollutant deposition and climate change in the region.

Keywords: Aircraft, field campaign, aerosols, Kiruna, Sweden, lidar, POLARCAT, atmosphere
Temporal Coverage: From 2008-03-30 to 2008-04-11

POLARCAT 2008 summer campaign: aircraft aerosol measurements over Kangerlussuaq (Greenland)

POLARCAT Kangerlussuaq summer campaign

POLARCAT is an International Polar Year project, which mostly organised aircraft- and ship-based campaigns into the Arctic during spring (Arctic Sweden) and summer (Greenland) 2008.

Keywords: Aircraft, field campaign, aerosols, Greenland, CO, O3, lidar, POLARCAT, atmosphere
Temporal Coverage: From 2008-06-30 to 2008-07-14

R/V Polarstern 2010 expedition: Sea surface measurements

R/V Polarstern: a survey of CO and non-methane hydrocarbons in the Arctic ocean

During the Polarstern expeditions in the Arctic Ocean two types of measurements were carried out: the first one is done while the vessel is moving; producing horizontal variability of the parameters measured (up to 6 m deep); the second one is carried out by deploying CTD and producing vertical profiles from 0 to 100 m

Keywords: Sea surface, R/V polarstern, ships, arctic ocean, chemical composition
Temporal Coverage: From 2010-06-10 to 2010-07-29

RACEPAC field campaigns: Radiation-Aerosol-Cloud aircraft measuerements in Inuvik (Canada)

Map of Canada showing the flight tracks for the 2014 RACE campaign

The RACEPAC-LaMP (Le Laboratoire de Météorologie Physique) project investigates the spatial distribution of ice and liquid water in mixed phase boundary layer clouds and its impact on remote sensing. The experimental design of the RACEPAC (Radiation-Aerosol-Cloud ExPeriment in the Arctic Circle) field campaign planned in collaboration with the AWI ( lfred-Wegener-Institut) and other German research groups (LIM, KIT, MPIC,FZJ) for spring 2014 (April-May) will be a major improvement over prior campaigns (ASTAR, POLARCAT, SORPIC, VERDI…). Both AWI polar research aircrafts (Polar-5 and Polar-6) flying at the same speed will be involved.

Keywords: RACEPAC, CLIMSLIP, aerosols, clouds, Canada, aircraft
Temporal Coverage: From 2014-04-24 to 2014-05-23

RALI-French airborne radar-lidar instrument for the study of cloud processes and evaluating satellite products in a global scale

RALI retrieved profiles of ice cloud properties

RALI project consists of an airborne platform combining a 95 GHz Doppler cloud radar named RASTA and a triple-wavelength dual-polarization lidar (High spectral resolution capability) named LNG for the characterisation of the macrophysical, microphysical, radiative, and dynamical properties of clouds, aerosols, and convection.

Keywords: Aircraft, radar, lidar, clouds, ice clouds, RALI, atmosphere
Temporal Coverage: From 2008-03-30 to 2008-04-11

RMR Lidar observations of the atmosphere from Andoya research station in Norway

ALOMAR lidar measurements of polar stratospheric clouds

The RMR-Lidar has been installed on the island of Andøya as part of the ALOMAR. It has been a cooperation of the Leibniz-Institute of Atmospheric Physics, the University of Bonn, the Service d'aéronomi of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique in Verrières-le-Buisson (France) and the University College London (Great Britain).

Keywords: Lidar, atmosphere, Alomar research station, aerosols, clouds

Sea surface salinity drifters as part of the OVIDE mission deployed in the Arctic/subarctic since 2008

Sea surface salinity drifters: SST and SSS distribution map

Numerous sea surface salinity drifters have been deployed in the Arctic/subarctic region. Since 2008 there are discontinuous data available through the SMOS project of SSS and SST, among other variables.

Keywords: Drifters, ovide mission, arctic/subartic, sea surface salinity, ocean
Temporal Coverage: From 2008-06-18

SoRPIC 2010 aircraft campaign in Svalbard measuring radiative and microphysical properties of Arctic clouds

Illustration of one of the flights performed during the SORPIC campaign

SoRPIC (short for Solar Radiation and Phase Discrimination of Arctic Clouds) is an international scientific project to investigate the spatial distribution of ice and liquid water in Arctic boundary-layer clouds, and its effects on the solar energy budget (the so-called radiative effect) and on remote sensing of such clouds.

Keywords: SoRPIC, CLIMSLIP, Svalbard, aircraft, arctic clouds
Temporal Coverage: From 2010-04-30 to 2010-05-20

TARA Expedition 2013: Continuous oceanographic measurements in the Arctic ocean

TARA oceans polar circle 2013 expedition

In 2013 the Tara Expedition conducted studies in the Arctic Ocean during 8 months. The data collected included continuous measurements of SST, SSS and pCO2, fCO2, which is being analysed in the laboratory at L'OCEAN.

Keywords: TARA, Arctic ocean, ships
Temporal Coverage: From 2013-05-19 to 2013-12-06

YAK-AEROSIB Project: Regional airborne observations of the atmospheric chemical composition in Eurasia

YAK Vertical Profiles

New aircraft high-precision measurements of the vertical distribution of CO2, CH4, CO, O3 and aerosol are performed in the Siberian troposphere on transects of more than 8000 km, and also new and existing datasets are analyzed. This projects builds upon the successful YAK-AEROSIB GDRE project (2003-2010).

Keywords: Aircraft, atmosphere, chemical composition, Siberia, field campaigns, YAK-AEROSIB, Arctic
Temporal Coverage: From 2006-04-11